Title: Influence of naphthalene acetic acid on aborted okra growth, bioactive compound and minerals

Abstract:The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of NAA (naphthalene acetic acid) on seedless okra production, vitamin C, carotenoids, flavonoids, antioxidants (DPPH), phenolic, and mineral content. The micro-syringe injection in flower stigma was an innovative method of application and was used in this experiment rather than spray as a common and traditional method. The flower stigma injection method was applied on the flower stigma after the anthesis of the flower of the okra plant using NAA at different concentrations. The lowest concentration (25 mg/l) of NAA greatly increased the pod setting compared to the higher concentrations and control. NAA application at 25 and 50 mg/l concentrations induced higher values of pod length, diameter, size, weight, ascorbic acid (vitamin C), and soluble solid content over the control. The chlorophyll content in leaves was affected significantly by different concentrations of NAA. It was found that 25 and 50 mg/l concentrations of NAA significantly increased chlorophyll content, fiber, moisture, flavonoid, carotenoid, antioxidant (DPPH), minerals and phenolic content compared to the other concentrations and control. In addition to that control and 25 mg/l concentrations of NAA, had increased the production of healthy seeds compared to the 50 and 100 mg/l. Moreover, 50 and 100mg/l of concentrations showed higher aborted seed (seedless) than the other concentration and control. Therefore, it seems that 25 mg/l is the best concentration for pod growth and development as well as 100mg/l is the best for seedless okra production.




Title: A comprehensive review of the taxonomy, ecology and biology of the Smilax genus

Abstract:Perennial plants belonging to the genus Smilax are found all over the world in tropical and subtropical areas. Smilax is one of the largest genera in the Smilacaceae family, including more than 300 species. Smilax species have carved a niche for themselves in a variety of environments, demonstrating their resilience and ecological relevance. These applications range from their distinctive morphological qualities to their commercial and medical uses. Certain Smilax plants have been discovered to have both anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties in their extracts. Several Smilax species have been used medicinally throughout history in a variety of cultures. Smilax species are found to inhabit a range of environments, including forests, marshes, and grasslands. Studies have demonstrated their interactions with other pollinators, such as specialist beetles, and their contribution to the habitat of other bird and invertebrate species. Furthermore, some species are consumed or utilized to make different kinds of drinks. In order to protect the diversity of Smilax plants and the environments they live in; conservation activities are essential. Notwithstanding their extensive range and ecological significance, the Smilax genus has not received enough thorough research attention. The focus of this review has been on the morphological traits, ecological importance, and variety of applications. To learn more about the evolutionary links within the genus and to learn more about the pharmacological and ecological characteristics of the Smilax plants, more investigation is to be carried out.




Title: Induction of Micronuclei and Other Nuclear Abnormalities in Channa punctata from Garbage Dumping Area of Deepor Beel- Ramsar Site, North East India

Abstract:The fish ecology of Deepor Beel is being threatened by the continuous flow of effluents from the solid wastes of Municipal garbage dump. The present study has been aimed to investigate the genotoxic effect of the solid wastes on Channa punctata of Deepor Beel using micronucleus assay. Fishes were collected from garbage dump affected and unaffected area of Deepor Beel. The micronuclei assay demonstrated significantly higher frequency of micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities in Channa punctata collected from affected site as compared to unaffected reference site. This study depicted the usefulness of micronucleus assay as an adequate approach for ecotoxicological monitoring of aquatic environment and its biodiversity.




Title: Sustainability of Current Account Deficits in MINT Countries: Time Series Analysis

Abstract:With the globalization process, there have been significant increases in international trade and international capital movements. In this context, international performance indicators of countries have come to the fore. The current account deficit is important in terms of expressing the external balances of countries. Today, the sustainability of the current account deficit, not its existence, is considered as a performance indicator. MINT countries are defined as countries with young populations and high development potential in terms of natural resources and geographical location. In this study, the sustainability of the current account deficits of MINT countries was investigated. The data range of the study was determined as 1981-2021. The current account deficit/GDP ratio of the countries and the export and import values of each country were used as the data set. As an econometric method in the study; From time series analyses, unit root tests, variance decomposition and cointegration tests were applied. According to the findings, the current account deficit was found to be unsustainable for the Indonesian economy. It has been determined that current account deficits are sustainable in the economies of Mexico, Nigeria and Türkiye. However, it has been determined that the sustainability of the current account deficit in Nigeria is weak. Within the framework of the findings, the unique structural situations of each country are explained.




Title: Humic acid application on soil stability indices and enzyme activity at different bell pepper water requirements

Abstract:Use of organic materials helps in reducing the consumption of chemical fertilizers, contributing to the sustainability of agricultural ecosystems. Humic acid can improve soil structure, especially in soils with low clay content, aiding in water retention and enhancing water absorption by plants. This characteristic has led to the attention of humic acid application in drought stress, particularly in arid soil regions. The present study aimed to investigate the simultaneous effects of humic acid and plant water requirements on the physical and biological properties of soil under bell pepper cultivation. The factorial experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with three levels of humic acid: 0 (HA0), 2 (HA2), and 4 (HA4) g/Kg of soil and four levels of plant water requirements: 60 (L60), 80 (L80), 100 (L100), and 120 % (L120), with four replications under greenhouse conditions. Bell pepper seedlings were transferred to 10 Kg pots after applying humic acid treatments and after the establishing of seedlings, plant water requirement treatments were applied for 80 days. During this period, plants were maintained at a temperature of 25 degrees Celsius during the day, 18 degrees Celsius at night, and a relative humidity of 75%, with a carbon dioxide concentration of 80 milligrams per liter. The results of this study showed that treatments L80HA4, L100HA4, and L120HA4 had the most significant impact on improving soil physical properties, such as normal stability index, total soil stability index, mean weight diameter of soil particles, soil particle stability, geometric mean diameter of soil particles, and reduction in soil particle destruction percentage. The highest values of wet and dry weight diameter of soil particles were observed in treatment L100HA4, which were 42.92%, 74%, and 67.01% higher, respectively, compared to the control (L60HA0). In contrast, the highest percentage of soil particle destruction was observed in treatment L60HA0, showing a 32.90% increase compared to treatment L100HA4. Furthermore, the best performance of bell pepper yield was observed in treatments L80HA4, L100H4, and L120HA4, although the differences between treatments were not statistically significant. The application of humic acid, in addition to improving bell pepper yield, increased water use efficiency and reduced water use. The lowest yield (3283 Kg/ha) and the lowest water consumption (3584 cubic meters/ha) were observed in treatments L60HA0 and L60HA4, respectively. Additionally, the results showed that the highest water use efficiency observed in L80HA4 treatment (7.45 Kg/m³), while the lowest was in L60HA0 treatment (0.80 Kg/m³). Moreover, humic acid significantly influenced the activity of soil enzymes, including soil phosphatase and urease. With more application of humic acid, soil moisture retention, microbial biomass carbon, urease, phosphatases activities increased. However, in treatments with full water requirements and 20 percent more than plant water requirements, enzyme activities decreased.




Title: Sunflower grain quality as affected by sulphur added to nitrogen fertilizer under different planting seasons

Abstract:The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of sulphur added to nitrogen fertilizer on sunflower grain quality under different planting seasons. This study was executed in the 2020/21, 2021/22 and 2022/23 planting seasons at Molelwane farm, North-West Province, South Africa. The experiment was a 5x2 factorial fitted into a randomized complete block design (RCBD). Two sunflower cultivars (PAN7057 and AGSUN8251) were planted. The five fertilizer combinations used were 30S kg/ha + 120N kg/ha, 30S kg/ha + 180N kg/ha, 60S kg/ha + 120N kg/ha, 60S kg/ha + 180N kg/ha and a control. The quality parameters measured included oil, protein, crude fibre, starch, and ash content. Planting season had no significant effect (p>0.05) on grain oil content. However, planting season had a significant effect (p<0.05) on grain protein content. Sunflower planted during the first and third planting seasons (2020/21 and 2022/23) produced a significantly higher protein content. Sulphur/nitrogen rate had a significant effect (p<0.05) on sunflower oil and protein content. Sunflower treated with sulphur/nitrogen rates of S30+N180 and S60+N120 kg/ha produced a significantly high oil and protein content. Sunflower treated with sulphur/nitrogen rates of S60+N180 kg/ha also produced a significantly high protein content. The results of this study suggest that variations in climatic conditions during planting seasons affect sunflower quality parameters. A sunflower cultivar PAN7057 showed an increase on the performance in terms of grain quality parameters. In this study, sulphur/nitrogen fertilizer rates of S60+N120 and S60+N180 kg/ha are considered effective in promoting sunflower grain quality performance.




Title: Cultural Representation and Human Rights of the Inter-Americana in the Contemporary Environment

Abstract:The increasing interaction between the political and social culture of the United States and the culture of Inter-Americana has created conditions of significant conflict and convergence in certain areas of American society. By analyzing the forces that have contributed to both the rejection and embrace of Inter-Americana within the culture of the United States, one may come to understand how both the political and social environment has influenced the manifestation of the cultural representations of Inter-Americana which may be identified in the contemporary environment. This study seeks to examine such representations through an analysis of multiple scholarly works relating to certain critical elements of said representations. It is argued herein that the entrenched political culture of the United States has contributed to a rise in negative cultural representations of Inter-Americana, however, a new wave of positive representations has begun to manifest through an embrace of cultural diversity by segments of the Inter-American population.




Title: Using artificial neural network to evaluate salinity indices to identify rapeseed salinity tolerant cultivars

Abstract:For the sake of comparing the accuracy of the artificial neural network to other statistical methods, 39 cultivars and liens of rapeseed were evaluated in terms of tolerance to salinity with the Artificial Neural Network and other statistical methods. Canola varieties were sown in a randomized complete block experiment with four repeats in two not identical irrigation conditions (normal and salinity, respectively, 0.831 dSm−1 and 8.7 dSm−1) in Kerman, Iran. The experimental outcomes (the existence of a significant difference between cultivars, as well as the significance of the environmental × cultivar interaction effect and on the other hand the non-significance, 0.021, of the correlation between cultivar\'s performance in two irrigation conditions) showed that there are the necessary genetic diversity between genotypes for breeding purposes. The four endurance indices including harmonic mean, stress tolerance index, mean product, and geometric mean product had positive and significant correlations with seed performance in both irrigation conditions. According to this, these four indices were the best for predicting salinity tolerant cultivars. The varieties such as Talaye, Talaieh, T98007, Ahmadi, Modena, Option 500 and PP-4010 had high yield in both environments and they are recommended for cultivation in salty soils.




Title: DETERMINANTS OF HORTICULTURAL ENTERPRISES IN THE INTEGRATED FARMING SYSTEM OF PLAIN TERAI IN KAILALI, NEPAL

Abstract:The farming system defined at the household level and influenced by resource variations comprises diverse elements such as crops, livestock, socioeconomics, and farm management. Diverse topography leads to varied integrated farming practices across Terai, Mid Hill, and Mountain regions of Nepal. This study was conducted in 2019 in Kailali, the Terai district within the Karnali River system, focused on analyzing farming systems in the plain Terai of the river system, examining dominant enterprises and adoption factors with emphasis on the factors influencing horticultural enterprise adoption. The dominant integrated farming system included horticulture, livestock, and agronomy. Household participation showed consistent patterns, with a majority opting for main cereal and horticultural crops, integrating livestock, and less emphasis on fruit trees. In the study area, the adoption of horticultural enterprise is significantly related to total land ownership, years of experience in farming, and training. The horticultural enterprise, encompassing economically significant cash crops and fruits, is a primary focus in the Terai region. This aligns with government priorities, highlighting the importance of promoting and supporting horticultural practices for economic development in the area. The findings emphasize the importance of considering diverse socioeconomic and personal variables for promoting horticultural enterprise adoption in rural agricultural development in Nepal.




Title: THE ASSOSIATION OF CHEMICAL SOIL PROPERTIES ON EVAPOTRANSPIRATION RATE EVALUATION

Abstract:We examine the evapotranspiration (ET) process and some chemical and physical properties of soil, such as soil salinity, soil hydraulic (SH), soil texture, soil electrical (SE), and soil mineral, to explain the relationship between the atmosphere and the soil degradation processes. The result reveals that, in the two stations observed, the difference between ET and precipitation value, even though they are very close, does not have a significant correlation. The remarkable complexity of the soil resulted in a higher value on the SE, CEC and SH in station A, whereas it had a low ET value, and the opposite result occurred at station B. The mineral content of the soil in station A was dominated by Kaolinite while in station B it was dominated by Montmorilonite; however, their salinity level was low. This study provided varying content of chemical elements in the two stations observable, such as Si, Al, Ca, Fe, Ti, Na, S, Mn, Co, P, Mg, K, Cr, Re, Cu, Ni, V, Yb, and Sc, even though they have an irregular pattern. The unique find that the abundance of the rear earth element elements like Eu, Yb and Sc in station A may be due to its low ET value. This information directly related the impact of the soil properties to the ET value and reveals that radiation, air temperature, humidity, wind speed, and plant characteristics were not the only parameters to be taken into account in determining the ET rate.