Title: Improving yeast biodiesel production using cost-effective substrates via two-stage fermentation

Abstract:Environmentally friendly alternative energy sources are needed due to the global energy crises and to mitigate the environmental issues related to fossil fuels. Among alternative energy sources, biodiesel has several advantages, especially when microbial lipids are used as biodiesel raw materials. Efforts to reduce microbial lipid production costs are currently being made. Candida lipolytica, an oleaginous yeast, was grown in nitrogen-limited media. Biomass production, lipid yield, and lipid content were evaluated. The impacts of inoculum size, pH, temperature, agitation speed, and incubation time, as well as variations in glucose concentration and different nitrogen sources were investigated. The yeast was grown in two-stage fermentation by combining the different optimized parameters together. In the first stage of fermentation, the lipid content was 29.35 � 0.5%, whereas in the second stage, it was 41.6 � 0.1% (on Day 10). Although the use of only glucose in the second stage increased the lipid content by 32%, this approach limited the cost-efficiency. In this study, to reduce the raw material cost and achieve a high lipid yield from a yeast that can eventually be used to produce biofuels, expired and rejected soft drinks (ERSD) and chey whey were used. The maximum lipid content (56.6 %) and lipid yield (88 %)were obtained with using only ERSD as carbon-rich medium. In addition, the use of ERSD instead of glucose in the second stage was cost-effective. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) was decreased by 48 %, indicating that C. lipolytica could effectively remove COD from the mixtures. The dominant fatty acids, in order of their relative abundance (%w/w), were oleic, palmitic, linoleic, and stearic acids. Biodiesel production and wastewater treatment were performed simultaneously with high efficiency.




Title: An Estimate of the Economic Value of Domestic Water Services: Case Study in Jordan

Abstract:The domestic water is provided at low prices for most residents in comparison to the actual cost of supply. This situation accompanied with the modest improvement of the operation and service performance leaded to large deficit in investing in the water system infrastructure to maintain and expand it. The objective of this paper is to estimate the value of domestic water as tools to assist in setting the appropriate water tariff and through recognizing the actual economic value of domestic water. The value to users of water is a key component of the extrinsic values that can be measured using the willingness to pay approach which could be expressed by the cost of water on users. Data availability is a key factor considered in determining the appropriate approach for valuing water. This factor leaded to apply the opportunity cost approach. The full water supply costs and the opportunity costs are the key components of this approach. The results show that the average domestic water value of a cubic meter is estimated at 1.85 JD and the total domestic water in Jordan is estimated at JD 338 million with spatial difference between governorates, while it is the highest in the remote areas in Jordan with a value of about 2.35 JD/m3.This higher values is a result of the high cost of water service provision in these areas due to the less efficient operation. Improving the utilities performance by reducing the non-revenue water would reduce the costs of water service provision, and thereby the domestic water value. Water pricing is a sensitive political issue. At the same time, serious problems arise when water charges fail to cover the costs of providing, and maintaining the services. The water utility needs to take appropriate action in this regard. Cost recovery requires expensive and effective services to cover the costs of metering, billing, illegal connections, and leakage. Pricing combined with properly enforced pollution penalties should be an important part of water conservation strategies.




Title: Enhancing Chlorophyll Stability Index and Salt Tolerance Percentage of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) by Plant Growth Regulators in Salinity Stress

Abstract:Today, the use of plant growth regulators (PGRs) in agriculture is of great importance in terms of agricultural sustainability and crop production especially stress conditions. In this study, safflower seeds were primed with 2 PGRs (salicylic and giberellic acid). In the study, 3 different doses of salicylic acid (SA) (0(control) (SA1), 5(SA2), 10(SA3)mg/l) and gibberellic acid (GA3) (0(control)(GA31), 5(GA32), 10(GA33)mg/l) and seeds were primed for 12 hours. Unprimed (UPS) seeds were also used as control. PS and UPS 50 seeds for each priming application in 4 different salt doses (0(control)(S1), 25mM(S2), 50mM(S3), 100mM S4)) were germinated for 14 days. In the study; germination percentage (GP), mean germination time (MGT), salt tolerance percentage (STP), seedling length (SL), root length (RL), relative water content (RWC), real water content (GSI), total chlorophyll (Total Chl), chlorophyll stability index (CSI) parameters were examined. The results showed that salt stress affected all parameters and priming application improved seed germination performance, seedling growth and other characteristics, especially with the 3rd dose of both PGRs. It was concluded that the PGRs applications under salt stress caused an increase in the germination performance of the seeds when compared to the control applications under the same stress.




Title: Seroprevalance of infectious bursal disease in backyard chicken in Jordan

Abstract:This study aims to determine the seroprevalence rates of infectious bursal disease (IBD) in healthy, non-vaccinated male chickens raised in a traditional management system (backyard chickens), the study was conducted from June 2021 to September 2021 \n210 blood samples were collected. serum samples were screened for IBD virus antibodies using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The study revealed 72% total prevalence rates of IBDV antibodies. \nUnivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that seropositivity to IBDV did not vary significantly between the study sites. The results of this study showed that IBD is an endemic and widely distributed disease in the studied areas.




Title: Effect of Prebiotic and Probiotic Supplementation on Broiler Chicken Performance

Abstract:This study was conducted in the poultry unit / School of Agriculture, at the University of Jordan. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of the addition of prebiotics and probiotics on growth of broiler chicks, and carcass characteristics. A total of 420 day-old chicks (Indian River), were randomly allotted to four experimental treatments. Each treatment contained 3 replicates and each replicate contained 35 birds. Pelleted feed (starter, grower, and finisher), diets were based on the nutritional guide of the Indian River strain. The addition of the prebiotics and probiotics was commenced at 15 days of age – two phases (grower 15 to 28 days, and the finisher 29 to 35 days). The dietary treatments consist of control; control plus 0.15% yeast extract (prebiotic); control plus 0.2% dried yeast culture (probiotic); and control plus 0.2% dried yeast culture and 0.15% yeast extract (synbiotic). Results showed that feed intake for birds fed on the control and prebiotic diets was the higher (p>0.05) to other two treatments. Herein results showed that feed conversion ratio was the lowest (p>0.05) in the birds fed probiotic and synbiotic diets with a significant improvement (p>0.05) in the birds fed prebiotic diets compared to control. Mortality, there was no significant difference among all treatments. Body weight and bodyweight gain of the birds fed prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic diets were significantly (p>0.05) superior to control treatment. Also there were a significant and tendencies in organs weight (heart, liver, wings, chest, thigh, neck, and back) also in intestine length and weight.




Title: FARMERS� KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICES ON ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL VEGETABLE CULTIVATION IN CAMERON HIGHLANDS, MALAYSIA

Abstract:The demand for organic farm production is growing faster than ever in recent years. Although there is an increase in number of certified organic producers, however local organic farm supplies still low to catch up with the growing demand from consumers. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the relationship between knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) of organic and conventional farmers in Cameron Highlands, Malaysia. This study was a cross sectional questionnaire survey, and the respondents were 76 vegetable farmers (61 conventional farmers and 15 organic farmers) in Cameron Highlands. The survey questionnaire consists of five main parts which are socio-demographics, general questions, and knowledge, attitudes, and practices factors. Outcomes showed that on average both organic and conventional farmers similarly hold neutral and conservative attitude towards organic farming and their differences was insignificant (p>0.05). Organic farmers had higher mean knowledge score and practices in organic farming than conventional farmers, and the differences was significant (p<0.05). The attitude of both organic and conventional farmers is not the determinants of their decisions to go organic, instead there were many external factors that formed a deep barrier towards organic farming for instances labour shortage, lack of governmental supports, and land tenure issue. The results supported another emerging perspective: knowledge could help achieve successful attitudinal and behavioural change in a direct manner significantly among organic farmers, but not among conventional farmers. In other words, it is useful to provide training and knowledge for the highly environmental-minded persons particularly for organic farmers to change one’s attitude and behaviours. However, it did not apply to low environmental-minded persons (i.e., conventional farmers), whereby other true reasons behind shall be investigated in future study.




Title: Histological and ELISA investigations to uncover subclinical and clinical Marek�s disease in broiler chickens in Jordan

Abstract:Marek\'s disease (MD) is a common lymphoproliferative diseases of chickens; in this study the incidence of MD was investigated in Amman’s municipalty slaughter house and suspected broiler farms located in Amman region by histopathology and ELISA. For the subclinical MD investigation, a total 100 chickens originated from Ammans municipality slaughter house were examined where blood samples were tested for antibody presence by ELISA kit together with histopathology, Parallely for clinical MD investigation, 100 chickens from 10 broiler farms were examined by histopathology and ELISA\nBased on the obtained results 70% of the blood samples from clinical and subclinical cases tested positive using ELISA kit, about 30 % of the liver samples (with average age of 35 days) collected from the slaughter house showed pleomorphic lymphoid cell proliferation and infiltration of mononuclear cells as subclinical MD. The microscopic results of examined broilers (average age of 36 days) with clinical signs of MD like spleen and liver enlargement, the presence of lymphomas showed pleomorphic lymphoid cell proliferation in spleens (23% ) and livers(20%). Now in Jordan, MD vaccination is not routinely done but recombinant vaccines that use mareks disease virus are used, which could explain the high prevalence of the antibodies against MD virus




Title: Effects of Supplementing Rumen Protected Methionine on Performance of Primiparous Dairy Cows during Presynch-Ovsynch Protocol

Abstract:The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of supplementing three levels of rumen-protected methionine (RPM) at two levels of protein (14 vs. 16% CP) on reproductive and productive performance in primiparous lactating dairy cows during timed artificial insemination (TAI) protocol. Thirty-six lactating Holstein cows were synchronized by the Presynch-Ovsynch protocol. Cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 dietary treatments: 1) 14% CP and a control diet (14CP- CON; n = 6), 2) 14% CP and 15 g/head/d RPM (14CP-15RPM; n = 6), 3) 14%CP and 25 g/head/d RPM (14CP-25RPM; n = 6), 4) 16% CP and a control diet (16CP-CON; n = 6), 5) 16% CP and 15 g/head/d RPM (16CP-15RPM; n = 6), and 6) 16% CP and 25 g/head/d RPM (16CP-25RPM; n = 6). Treatments were initiated 30 ± 3 d and continued through 100 ± 3 d in milk. Progesterone (P4) concentrations and milk production and composition were evaluated weekly. Feeding 16CP-15RPM increased (P< 0.01) overall plasma P4. Furthermore, regardless of CP levels, cows supplemented with RPM decreased (P< 0.01) the calving interval. RPM diet had more (P<0.01) overall plasma P4 than cows fed the control diet. Feeding 16CP-25RPM or 16CP-15RPM increased (P< 0.01) milk yield, milk fat yield, and 4% fat corrected milk compared to other treatments. In conclusion, feeding 16CP-25RPM or 16CP-15RPM improved the productive and reproductive performance in primiparous lactating dairy cows




Title: IN VITRO SHOOT MULTIPLICATION AND ROOT INDUCTION OF AQUASCAPE PLANT Eichhornia diversifolia

Abstract:Eichhornia diversifolia is an especially beautiful stem aquatic plant commonly used in aquascape designs. A design to arrange variety of ornamental aquatic plants in the aquarium creates beautiful formation in the water medium. E. diversifolia has a high potential value and is highly favoured by ornamental Aquatic plant hobbyists. Conventional propagation in nature is not possible because environmental factors that do not support the success of propagation, particularly water pollution in river. This study is aimed at propagating E. diversifolia by in vitro techniques using roots as propagation material. The multiplication of shoots is one of the important stages in micropropagation. Increasing the number of shoots can be done by culturing the media containing cytokinin. The aim this study is to obtain optimal concentrations of cytokinins for in vitro multiplication E.diversifolia shoot. We used MS (1962) basal medium with BAP, Kinetin and 2iP at various concentrations i.e. 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mg / L. The rate of shoot multiplication increases with the increasing level of cytokinin concentration. But optimal results were obtained on MS media supplemented with BA 0.2 mg / L where the shoot height, number of shoots and leaves were higher. BA at concentration of 0.3 mg / L reduced the number of shoots formation with slower growth. . MS+ IBA 0.3 mg/l medium was the best medium for root induction of E. diversifolia, the roots produced were more numerous and longer than the other treatments.




Title: Effect of polar and non-polar facets of ZnO substrate on adsorption of H2O molecules

Abstract:The adsorption isotherms of water on ZnO present two sub-steps in the monolayer coverage. Many studies of the system H2O-ZnO have been conducted to explain this specificity. The various interpretations advanced by the authors seem to be not totally convincing. We investigate this system to bring a more realistic interpretation to the observed two sub-steps in the isotherm of water on ZnO. An adsorption isotherm of H2O on ZnO, pretreated at high temperature, was measured both in adsorption mode and desorption way at T=273.16K.The two sub-steps are correlated to the adsorption of H2O molecules respectively on polar and nonpolar surfaces of ZnO. The adsorbed volume of water at the top of each sub-step is in good proportion with the area of the adsorbing surfaces of ZnO. It appears from the shape of the isotherm, measured in adsorption mode, that H2O molecules cover firstly the polar faces of ZnO then adsorption took place on nonpolar faces of the substrate. This assumption is supported by the free enthalpy excess determined from the isotherm.