Title: Relative gut length, feeding intensity and gut content analysis of Macrognathus aral (Bloch and Schneider, 1801) from floodplain wetland Dora, Assam

Abstract:Gut content analysis helps to understand the feeding habit of a fish and the availability of food in that habitat. The present study deals with the gut content analysis of Macrognathus aral. In the study it is observed that M. aral has an RLG value that ranges from 0.64 (±0.04) to 0.64 (±0.06) in different length groups of fishes which indicates that the fish is carnivorous. The gastrosomatic index of Macrognathus aral peaks in the premonsoon season and declines in the postmonsoon season. Sand, soil, molluscs, annelids, crustaceans, zooplankton, and other food items have been observed in the gut of Macrognathus aral during the study period.

Title: Comparison between the fodder quality of Algerian Pennisetum and Sorghum

Abstract:Sorghum and Pennisetum were installed in 2013 in a complete random block. Mowing at the vegetative stage was carried out at 30 cm for sorghum and at 60 cm for Pennisetum. There is a very strong correlation between these two parameters (r= 0.75***). The milky pasty stage is reached at 112 days for Pennisetum and at 119 days for sorghum; height of 3 m while sorghum does not exceed 2.5 m, which offers the best green and dry yield for Pennisetum (r=0.60**). At the same pasty milky stage of sorghum, digestibility varies between 45.09%-57.44% for the Sudanese population, 52.72%-53.28% for Hamra and 58.78%-53.92% for the Beida. At the hard grain stage, the digestibility of sorghum is close to the values of Pennisetum at the milky pasty stage. Such ecotypes can play a role in the conservation and enhancement of fragile soils.

Title: Study of sugar, Carotenoid, Antioxidant, Mineral and Biomass Content of Mango, Water Apple, and Banana

Abstract:Mango, water apple, and banana fruits are the staple fruit crops in Asia, Europe, America, and also all over the world. Fruits are mainly used as fruit, juice, and a source of different food products. These are traditional and common fruits with health benefits and nutritional, pharmaceutical, and medicinal value. The study evaluated the carbohydrate content represented by glucose, fructose, total soluble solids, carotenoids, flavonoids, antioxidants, and phenolics. pH and minerals are micro-macro nutrient content in mango, water apple, and banana. 48 fruits were collected: mango, water apple, and banana. Samples were collected randomly following the completely randomized design. An atomic emission (AE) spectroscopic multi-element analyzer was used for minerals, and GC-FID was used for sugar analysis. Fruit fructose and glucose were higher in bananas and mangoes than in water apples. pH content was found higher in apples than in mango and banana. In addition, total soluble solids (TSS) content was the highest in mango. Potassium content was higher in bananas and mangoes than in mangoes. However, Phosphorus and calcium content were the highest in bananas. Moreover, magnesium (Mg) content was higher in water apples than in bananas and mango. Comparatively, more micronutrients were found in bananas and water apples than in mangoes. Fe, Zn, Na, and Mn were higher in water apples and mangoes than in bananas. The highest fiber and moisture were found in bananas. Flavonoids and carotenoids were found higher in water apples than in other fruits. Antioxidant and phenolic content were higher in mangos compared to the others. The results conclude that banana and water apples contain better biochemical (glucose, TSS, and pH) content than mango, and bioactive compound (flavonoid, phenolic, and carotenoids) was found higher in mangos and water apples, which can be used in the pharmaceutical industry for biomedicine production.

Title: Influence of naphthalene acetic acid on aborted okra growth, bioactive compound and minerals

Abstract:The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of NAA (naphthalene acetic acid) on seedless okra production, vitamin C, carotenoids, flavonoids, antioxidants (DPPH), phenolic, and mineral content. The micro-syringe injection in flower stigma was an innovative method of application and was used in this experiment rather than spray as a common and traditional method. The flower stigma injection method was applied on the flower stigma after the anthesis of the flower of the okra plant using NAA at different concentrations. The lowest concentration (25 mg/l) of NAA greatly increased the pod setting compared to the higher concentrations and control. NAA application at 25 and 50 mg/l concentrations induced higher values of pod length, diameter, size, weight, ascorbic acid (vitamin C), and soluble solid content over the control. The chlorophyll content in leaves was affected significantly by different concentrations of NAA. It was found that 25 and 50 mg/l concentrations of NAA significantly increased chlorophyll content, fiber, moisture, flavonoid, carotenoid, antioxidant (DPPH), minerals and phenolic content compared to the other concentrations and control. In addition to that control and 25 mg/l concentrations of NAA, had increased the production of healthy seeds compared to the 50 and 100 mg/l. Moreover, 50 and 100mg/l of concentrations showed higher aborted seed (seedless) than the other concentration and control. Therefore, it seems that 25 mg/l is the best concentration for pod growth and development as well as 100mg/l is the best for seedless okra production.

Title: A comprehensive review of the taxonomy, ecology and biology of the Smilax genus

Abstract:Perennial plants belonging to the genus Smilax are found all over the world in tropical and subtropical areas. Smilax is one of the largest genera in the Smilacaceae family, including more than 300 species. Smilax species have carved a niche for themselves in a variety of environments, demonstrating their resilience and ecological relevance. These applications range from their distinctive morphological qualities to their commercial and medical uses. Certain Smilax plants have been discovered to have both anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties in their extracts. Several Smilax species have been used medicinally throughout history in a variety of cultures. Smilax species are found to inhabit a range of environments, including forests, marshes, and grasslands. Studies have demonstrated their interactions with other pollinators, such as specialist beetles, and their contribution to the habitat of other bird and invertebrate species. Furthermore, some species are consumed or utilized to make different kinds of drinks. In order to protect the diversity of Smilax plants and the environments they live in; conservation activities are essential. Notwithstanding their extensive range and ecological significance, the Smilax genus has not received enough thorough research attention. The focus of this review has been on the morphological traits, ecological importance, and variety of applications. To learn more about the evolutionary links within the genus and to learn more about the pharmacological and ecological characteristics of the Smilax plants, more investigation is to be carried out.

Title: Induction of Micronuclei and Other Nuclear Abnormalities in Channa punctata from Garbage Dumping Area of Deepor Beel- Ramsar Site, North East India

Abstract:The fish ecology of Deepor Beel is being threatened by the continuous flow of effluents from the solid wastes of Municipal garbage dump. The present study has been aimed to investigate the genotoxic effect of the solid wastes on Channa punctata of Deepor Beel using micronucleus assay. Fishes were collected from garbage dump affected and unaffected area of Deepor Beel. The micronuclei assay demonstrated significantly higher frequency of micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities in Channa punctata collected from affected site as compared to unaffected reference site. This study depicted the usefulness of micronucleus assay as an adequate approach for ecotoxicological monitoring of aquatic environment and its biodiversity.

Title: Sustainability of Current Account Deficits in MINT Countries: Time Series Analysis

Abstract:With the globalization process, there have been significant increases in international trade and international capital movements. In this context, international performance indicators of countries have come to the fore. The current account deficit is important in terms of expressing the external balances of countries. Today, the sustainability of the current account deficit, not its existence, is considered as a performance indicator. MINT countries are defined as countries with young populations and high development potential in terms of natural resources and geographical location. In this study, the sustainability of the current account deficits of MINT countries was investigated. The data range of the study was determined as 1981-2021. The current account deficit/GDP ratio of the countries and the export and import values of each country were used as the data set. As an econometric method in the study; From time series analyses, unit root tests, variance decomposition and cointegration tests were applied. According to the findings, the current account deficit was found to be unsustainable for the Indonesian economy. It has been determined that current account deficits are sustainable in the economies of Mexico, Nigeria and Türkiye. However, it has been determined that the sustainability of the current account deficit in Nigeria is weak. Within the framework of the findings, the unique structural situations of each country are explained.

Title: Humic acid application on soil stability indices and enzyme activity at different bell pepper water requirements

Abstract:Use of organic materials helps in reducing the consumption of chemical fertilizers, contributing to the sustainability of agricultural ecosystems. Humic acid can improve soil structure, especially in soils with low clay content, aiding in water retention and enhancing water absorption by plants. This characteristic has led to the attention of humic acid application in drought stress, particularly in arid soil regions. The present study aimed to investigate the simultaneous effects of humic acid and plant water requirements on the physical and biological properties of soil under bell pepper cultivation. The factorial experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with three levels of humic acid: 0 (HA0), 2 (HA2), and 4 (HA4) g/Kg of soil and four levels of plant water requirements: 60 (L60), 80 (L80), 100 (L100), and 120 % (L120), with four replications under greenhouse conditions. Bell pepper seedlings were transferred to 10 Kg pots after applying humic acid treatments and after the establishing of seedlings, plant water requirement treatments were applied for 80 days. During this period, plants were maintained at a temperature of 25 degrees Celsius during the day, 18 degrees Celsius at night, and a relative humidity of 75%, with a carbon dioxide concentration of 80 milligrams per liter. The results of this study showed that treatments L80HA4, L100HA4, and L120HA4 had the most significant impact on improving soil physical properties, such as normal stability index, total soil stability index, mean weight diameter of soil particles, soil particle stability, geometric mean diameter of soil particles, and reduction in soil particle destruction percentage. The highest values of wet and dry weight diameter of soil particles were observed in treatment L100HA4, which were 42.92%, 74%, and 67.01% higher, respectively, compared to the control (L60HA0). In contrast, the highest percentage of soil particle destruction was observed in treatment L60HA0, showing a 32.90% increase compared to treatment L100HA4. Furthermore, the best performance of bell pepper yield was observed in treatments L80HA4, L100H4, and L120HA4, although the differences between treatments were not statistically significant. The application of humic acid, in addition to improving bell pepper yield, increased water use efficiency and reduced water use. The lowest yield (3283 Kg/ha) and the lowest water consumption (3584 cubic meters/ha) were observed in treatments L60HA0 and L60HA4, respectively. Additionally, the results showed that the highest water use efficiency observed in L80HA4 treatment (7.45 Kg/m³), while the lowest was in L60HA0 treatment (0.80 Kg/m³). Moreover, humic acid significantly influenced the activity of soil enzymes, including soil phosphatase and urease. With more application of humic acid, soil moisture retention, microbial biomass carbon, urease, phosphatases activities increased. However, in treatments with full water requirements and 20 percent more than plant water requirements, enzyme activities decreased.

Title: Sunflower grain quality as affected by sulphur added to nitrogen fertilizer under different planting seasons

Abstract:The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of sulphur added to nitrogen fertilizer on sunflower grain quality under different planting seasons. This study was executed in the 2020/21, 2021/22 and 2022/23 planting seasons at Molelwane farm, North-West Province, South Africa. The experiment was a 5x2 factorial fitted into a randomized complete block design (RCBD). Two sunflower cultivars (PAN7057 and AGSUN8251) were planted. The five fertilizer combinations used were 30S kg/ha + 120N kg/ha, 30S kg/ha + 180N kg/ha, 60S kg/ha + 120N kg/ha, 60S kg/ha + 180N kg/ha and a control. The quality parameters measured included oil, protein, crude fibre, starch, and ash content. Planting season had no significant effect (p>0.05) on grain oil content. However, planting season had a significant effect (p<0.05) on grain protein content. Sunflower planted during the first and third planting seasons (2020/21 and 2022/23) produced a significantly higher protein content. Sulphur/nitrogen rate had a significant effect (p<0.05) on sunflower oil and protein content. Sunflower treated with sulphur/nitrogen rates of S30+N180 and S60+N120 kg/ha produced a significantly high oil and protein content. Sunflower treated with sulphur/nitrogen rates of S60+N180 kg/ha also produced a significantly high protein content. The results of this study suggest that variations in climatic conditions during planting seasons affect sunflower quality parameters. A sunflower cultivar PAN7057 showed an increase on the performance in terms of grain quality parameters. In this study, sulphur/nitrogen fertilizer rates of S60+N120 and S60+N180 kg/ha are considered effective in promoting sunflower grain quality performance.

Title: Cultural Representation and Human Rights of the Inter-Americana in the Contemporary Environment

Abstract:The increasing interaction between the political and social culture of the United States and the culture of Inter-Americana has created conditions of significant conflict and convergence in certain areas of American society. By analyzing the forces that have contributed to both the rejection and embrace of Inter-Americana within the culture of the United States, one may come to understand how both the political and social environment has influenced the manifestation of the cultural representations of Inter-Americana which may be identified in the contemporary environment. This study seeks to examine such representations through an analysis of multiple scholarly works relating to certain critical elements of said representations. It is argued herein that the entrenched political culture of the United States has contributed to a rise in negative cultural representations of Inter-Americana, however, a new wave of positive representations has begun to manifest through an embrace of cultural diversity by segments of the Inter-American population.