Abstract:Linseed is an essential and purely rabbi season crop that requires an adequate amount of nutrients to grow and develop plants properly. Micronutrients addition as a foliar spray improve the flax yield and oil contents. This study aimed to see how foliar iron (Fe) application influenced flax yield and yield components. The experiment was built up in a randomized block design with three-replication at the Adoptive Research Farm Sargodha. The six different levels of Fe viz., control, 1.5%, 2.5%, 3.5%, 4.5%, 5.5%, were applied at bund initiation and capsule filling stages of flax crop by foliar spray, and Fe source was Fe sulphate. All the treatments significantly improved agronomic attributes such as plant height, technical stem length, no. of capsule formation, biological yield, harvest index, grain oil contents as well as physiological parameters including chlorophyll contents, electron transport rate (ETR), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), quantum yield (YII) and fluorescence yield (Ft). As a result, it is recommended that 3.5% Fe can be used at the capsule filling stage and at bud initiation stage of flax to improve seed yield, yield attributes and oil contents.
Abstract:Oasis canopies participate actively in stabilizing rural populations, ensuring food security and fighting the causes of climate change. That’s why all intervening in the oasis sector are searching methods to enhance productivity inside and to ameliorate the agricultural water management techniques used. It is in this direction that we have tried to study the impact of introducing the localized irrigation system “micro-jet” inside the oases. We have presented the necessary equations permitting to conceptualize and to size this watering system and those to calculate the eventual impacts. We have considered socio economical indicators, morphological indicators and physical-bio chemical indicators
Abstract:The aim of this study is to discover the factors of corporate governance having influence on environment disclosure. The study has been conducted for cement companies in Saudi Arabia. It is based on cognitive mapping techniques and the analysis has been done by using Micmac software. The result shows that most influential factors for environment disclosure in cement company are: Type of Business , Board Size, CEO Educational Qualification, Profitability, Auditors Type and Legislative factor. These factors also have a strong influence on other variables and on environment disclosure. Based on finding the researcher has made relevant recommendation to the manager of cement companies.
Abstract:Background: Stress situation which occurs during plant production for various reasons causes efficiency and quality losses. Among stresses that plants encounter with, drought stress comes at the forefront. It is mostly impossible to prevent this situation and approaches that will improve stress resistance bear great importance. For this purpose nowadays it is focused on genetic engineering. However, as it is expensive and as it requires information accumulation, it bears significant importance to find alternatives that are natural, easy to use, can be put into practice, and that are non-harmful for human health. It is known that hormones are importance in plant stress physiology, some substances introduced as new generation hormones also have properties in this direction and their more functions are revealed with each passing day. One of these substances is strigolactone (SL). It is found out that SL undertake important functions in stress metabolism and new studies are carried out in this area. \nResults: The effects of SL applications on drought stress in 5 BB and 110 R American grapevine rootstocks were investigated. SL solutions (5.0 and 10.0 µM) were applied to the rootstocks and exposed to drought stress. In the measurement of effect of SL on stress, chlorophyl, proline, phenolic compounds, membrane injurity, lipid peroxidation, soluble protein and antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase) were examined, data being obtained show that usage potential of SLs is high in this respect. \nConclusions: In this study, in which the effects of SL applications on drought stress in two grapevine rootstocks, which are widely used in viticulture and have different drought resistance, are examined. However, in order to understand stress responses and mechanisms of SLs more clearly, they must be worked on including the interaction mechanisms with other plant hormones. Even though some information is obtained for understanding SL hormonal interaction, it is required for critical information gaps to be evaluated both at cellular and molecular levels.
Abstract:The study evaluated climate smart adaptive measure of yellow cassava, linkages and implications in Southeast Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling procedure was deployed for sample selection which brought about 399 respondents. Data were collected using structured questionnaire and were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequency counts, percentage, mean scores and beta regression technique. Results showed that yellow cassava farmers were more of males (60.2%), married (80.0%), and relatively educated (60.4%). Major climate change hazards experienced by yellow cassava farmers include increased disease of crop (69.4%), reduced soil fertility (76.7%), and increased insect infestations (51.4%). Assets deployed in yellow cassava production were tractors, mechanized harvesters, and family labour. Again, land tenure systems, family rules, funding agency guidelines, and extension agents were among the social institutions that influenced resource control of the cassava farmers. Alternative to agriculture (75.4%), empowerment programs (77.2%), engagement strategies, and crop variety diversifications (97.0%), were climate smart adaptive measures utilized in the area. Again, earthening up of cassava plot, change in spacing between plant stands, and change in farming systems were some of the new technologies and skills employed to enhance yellow cassava production. Majority of the farmers, (97.7%) accessed climate information on radio and public places. Further, greater percentage of the farmers (89.0%) had low adaptive capacity to climate change. Age, education, household size, and extension contacts influenced climate smart adaptive measures of yellow cassava. The study recommends farmers to cultivate more of yellow cassava because of its calorie content capacity and seek for early warning information on climate change to avert possible negative consequences.
Abstract:The effects of pH, growth regulator and saccharide in artificial culture medium on the physiological characteristics of desert biocrusts were investigated to explore optimal cultivating conditions. The results suggested that the malondialdehyde (MDA) was the lowest and the chlorophyll-a, soluble protein, and soluble sugar were the highest under 0.5 mg/L of 2,4-D and 6-BA and 10 mg/L for sucrose and glucose, and pH 7.5 in media. MDA decreased as 2,4-D and 6-BA concentrations increased, but increased over time. The alkaline environment was more suitable for the growth and metabolism of desert biocrusts, the optimum medium pH for artificial cultivation of desert biocrust was 7.5. The value of MDA was decreased with the increase of growth regulator concentration, while it increased with the increasing of acetone concentration. The growth regulator had a regulatory effect on the growth of desert biocrusts, the best plant growth regulator concentration was 0.5 mg/L. The maximum tolerance to sucrose concentration of desert moss was found to be 40 mg/L, while glucose was 20 mg/L. The type of sugar source had an effect on the growth and reproductive cycles in desert biocrust, and as sugar concentrations increase, the greater the damage caused to cells of desert biocrusts.
Abstract:Our work aims to assess the quality of eight samples of honey collected in different Algerian localities (East, South, and West). These nectars are examined from the pollen type of flower of plant endemic to Algeria. For this purpose we carried out a pollen analysis, physicochemical such as pH, electrical conductivity, humidity, ash content, viscosity, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content, amylase, acidity free of lactones and total acidity and microbial properties for the statistical study we used SPSS software. our results show that our samples are classified into 3 classes. The physico-chemical examination shows that the Batna and Annaba honeys are pure and the other honeys are a mixture of nectar and honeydew. The degree of hydroxymethylfurfural almost zero, against two examples of honey from Laghouat and local Guelma demonstrated a high level of HMF by the codex. The microbial examination shows that “Staphylococcus aureus is the most sensitive compared to Escherichia coli and Candida albicans of low concentration. This result could situate a possible application in the treatment of various ailments caused by pathogenic germs. the physico-synthetic parameters considered are most often used as markers of the quality and solidity of honey and affecting its organoleptic properties.
Abstract:The plant growth regulators (PGRs) including gibberellic acid (GA3) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) can assist plants in coping with abiotic stresses. This study aimed to investigate the influence of MeJA and GA3 at different doses on the early stage of wheat growth. For this study, first eighty-seven wheat cultivars were assessed under varying salinity stresses, i.e., 0, 70, 140, 210 and 280 mM NaCl for best tolerant cultivars selection. Afterwards, through assessment, two wheat cultivars (Ning-14 and Yangmai-23) selected for comparison, and two adequate salt concentrations were decided for the seeds priming experiment. Both cultivars were pre-treated with 75 and 150M MeJA and GA3 after soaking for 12 hours and exposed to two separate NaCl treatments and control (Ck) (0, 140, and 210 mM). The result showed that the high salinity treatments increased Na+ content by 80.38 and 72.2 % while decreasing growth rates by 44.72 and 47.33% in both cultivars. Meanwhile, the MeJA and GA3 treated seeds significantly increased germination, fresh seedling weight, root and shoot length, seedling vigour index, and decreased Na+ absorption in Ning-14 and Yangmai-23 (by 11.7 % and 12.3 % at 210 mM NaCl). In addition, we observed that the high concentration of MeJA and GA3 had no positive impact on sensitive wheat cultivars like Ning-14. According to this study, treatment with MeJA and GA3 may help in alleviating the adverse effects of salt by increasing germination percentage and root/shoot length. As a result, investigations into MeJA and GA3 reflect the relevance of changes in other traits of rice germination and seedlings growth.
Abstract:We assessed the influence of vase solution pH and preservative substances on cut flower quality of (Rosa hybrida cvs. Avalanche and Black Magic), gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii cv. Beaudine) and lily (Lilium × elegans cv. Fangio) under room (20±2 °C) and cold storage (4±1 °C) conditions. Cut flowers were placed in four different acidic (pH, 3.5 – 4) or basic (pH, 7.0 – 7.5) preservative solutions containing water, sugar 5% (flower food), 100 mg/L silver nitrate (AgNO3, bactericide), or a commercial product (2% sugar + bactericide and fungicide). Acidic solutions had higher or similar (never lower) vase life at both room and cold storage conditions and across species. In addition, vase life was 3-4 times longer in cold storage when compared to room conditions. Leaf chlorophyll concentration for rose and lily were inconsistent or not significant across the species at both conditions (room and cold storage). The commercial preservative solution consistently and significantly had higher vase life than water for all tested cut flower species and under both room and cold storage environment. AgNO3 ranked second in terms of vase life enhancement. Overall, the use of only flower food (sugar) or bactericide (AgNO3) had a positive impact on vase life but only the combined use of preservative substance (specifically at pH, 3.5 – 4.0) consistently guaranteed a high cut flower quality across flower species.
Abstract:Wheat is a significant source of carbohydrates and proteins and needs large amounts of fertilizers for high yield. Every year we have to apply tons of nitrogen fertilizer, which increases the cost of wheat production. To reduce the requirement of fertilizer, nitrogen-efficient varieties can play a crucial role. To achieve these targets, thirteen wheat varieties were grown under low and high nitrogen levels. Data was collected from both treatments on various morpho-agronomic traits, i.e., plant height, leaf area number of days to 50% heading, number of grains per spike, thousand-grain weight, dry straw matter maturity, leaf senescence, grain yield, and harvest index. The nitrogen contents of the soil, stem, leaves, and grains were determined and utilized to assess nitrogen uptake efficiency, nitrogen utilization efficiency, nitrogen use efficiency, and nitrogen harvest index. The analyzed data showed that Sahar 2006 and Faisalabad 2008 outperformed for yield, and most of the agro-morphological outcomes contributing traits under low nitrogen level. The varieties Chakwal 86, Faisalabad 2008, and Sahar 2006 showed good performance for most of the nitrogen use efficiency-related parameters, as well as these varieties are the most nitrogen use efficient varieties.