Abstract:The accumulation of pesticides in cultivation soil exerts a selection pressure on its microbiota. Over time it generates insensitivity in harmful fungi for crops of economic and nutritional importance such as avocado and guava. The sensitivity of the pathogenic fungi of these fruit trees to the fungicides used for their control was evaluated in vitro and in a relevant environment. Most of the fungal isolates showed insensitivity to fungicides in the in vitro condition. However, the response changes depending on the environment where the fungicide and fungus interact. In Hass avocado fruit, the fungicide azoxystrobin was effective in reducing pedicle rot disease in avocado fruit. The insensitivity to conventional fungicides in laboratory tests and in a relevant environment (fruit) exhibited by the deleterious fungi of Hass avocado fruit and guava is an alert for the verification of pesticide management strategies in these crops.

Title: Review on adaptation strategies of plant fine roots to environments

Abstract:Fine roots have been proved to play a crucial role in plant growth, ecosystem nutrient cycling and energy flow. Moreover, they can make sensitive perceptions and responses to environmental changes, showing the important adaption strategies of plant to environment. Studies on the strategies of fine root to environment and their influencing factors are urgent and essential. In the present study, the two study works were conducted systematically based on previous studies: 1) Review on the latest research results of the environmental adaptation strategies; 2) Summarization of the influencing factors of fine root adaptation strategies. We suggest research directions to address some of these issues for the purpose of refining adaptation strategies of plant fine roots to environments: 1) single research of fine root traits can not fully reflect the response of plant fine root to the environment; 2) relationships between rhizosphere environment and fine root traits needs to be further studied; 3) there are still uncertainties of adaptation strategies and mechanisms of fine roots under different durations and scales; 4) researches on fine root adaption strategies in Karst areas are obviously lack.

Title: Conservation agriculture improves soil and productivity of wheat-rice cropping systems in semi-arid region

Abstract:A study was conducted using various sowing methods and engineering approaches on rice-wheat crop rotation for two consecutive years (2016-18) in Punjab Province of Pakistan. The sowing of crop was done by using three different techniques including Zone Disk Tiller Drill (ZDTD) with 39% crop residue retention (T1), Happy Seeder with 31% crop residue retention (T2) and conventional technique in which land was prepared with Rotavator and sowing was made with Rabi Seed Drill with zero crop residue retention (T3). The data were recorded for residue decomposition rate, soil bulk density, penetration resistance and crop yield, analyzed using Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) (α = 5%). The results revealed that zero tillage and crop residue had significant effect on crop yield and soil physical properties. Maximum value of rice straw residue decomposition (0.5 ton/acre) was found for T2 during 1st month of 1st year wheat crop and minimum decomposition value (0.13 ton/acre) was also found for T2 before harvesting of wheat crop in the same year. Maximum value of wheat straw residue decomposition was found during 1st month of 2nd year of wheat straw residue application for T1 and minimum value (0.12 ton/acre) for T1 during 2nd year of wheat straw residue application. Maximum soil bulk density was measured for T3 during 2nd year after 3 months of wheat sowing and minimum bulk density was calculated for T1 during 2nd year of experiment after 3 month of rice sowing. Maximum value of penetration resistance (62 kPa) was found during 1st year for T2 and minimum penetration resistance (37 kPa) was found for T3 during 1st year of experimentation. Maximum wheat yield of 1.94 ton/acre was noted for T1 during 2nd year of experimentation and minimum wheat yield of 1.67 ton/acre was noted for T3 during 2nd year. For rice crop maximum crop yield of 2.77 ton/acre was observed for T1 during 2nd year and minimum crop yield of 2.60 ton/acre was noted for T3 during 1st year of experimentation.

Title: Segmental Body Composition Analysis by Bioimpedance (BI) as Obesity Determination Tool

Abstract:Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between seg¬mental body composition, obe¬sity measures and body mass index (BMI) using bioelectrical impedance analysis. \nMethods: 48 adult individuals (30 females and 18 males) at Applied Science Private University (ASU) Faculty of Pharmacy Department of Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics were participated in body composition analysis on 12 January 2020, and InBody 370S device was used to perform the analysis.\nResults: The results of BIA analysis, lean body mass and body muscle mass were found to be statistically significantly higher in obese female adults compared with obese boys. However, lean mass of the left arm, left leg muscle mass and basal metabolic rate were found to be statistically significantly( P< 0.05) lower in defined obese female compared none obese individuals.\nConclusion: The results proof that both lean and fat segmental analysis are highly correlated values, and the level of obesity and segmental analysis for female and male adults can be considered in Obesity and disease preventions.

Title: Biofuel production from Agro-Industrial waste of tomato pomace by-products using Aspergillus niger and S. cerevisiae

Abstract:Tomato pomace a by-product of tomato processing is a potential agroindustrial waste could be used as raw materials and could be used in production of food produce of nutritional value. Peels and seeds are the major constituents of the tomato pomace and represents of about 5 % of tomato weight. These wastes if not used will aggravate the disposal and environmental problems. The aim of this study is to evaluate the chemical composition of tomato pomace collected from local factory in Al-Mafraq governorate located in Eastern part of Jordan to evaluate the use to this waste in Bioethanol production. Moisture content, total soluble sugars, protein, fat, total fiber, and Ash (mineral content). The moisture content (wet matter bases) was 69.5%. Tomato pomace chemical compositions (dry matter bases) used in this study were; 5.8% moisture, 59.2% fiber, 24.6% total sugars, 4.6% protein, 3.8% pectin, 1.1% total fat and 1.8% minerals( Ash). Ethanol produced after one-month fermentation without and with acid hydrolysis, were 100 ppm and 6.3%, respectively.

Title: Miraculous Properties of pomegranate fruit and Perspective of Modern Sciences

Abstract:Pomegranate (Punica granatum) mentioned in Quran three times, God has deposited in this fruit a lot of ingredients that made them a medicine for many diseases. Pomegranate is rich in minerals especially potassium, iron, calcium and phosphorus pomegranate rich in amino acids and vitamins (vitamin A, B3 and C Act with potassium and sodium, aim to maintained water balance in the body to prevent edema, also maintain functions of muscles and nerves. The phytochemicals presence in pomegranate such as: polyphenol, anthocyanin, flavonoid and tannins it considered to be antioxidant that treat for cancer, diabetes and other diseases. Pomegranate is specifically anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial, the health benefits of eating pomegranate are great\nStudies have shown that pomegranate seeds and flowers are a treatment for diabetes, osteoporosis and cancer. While leaves, peel and pomegranate juice treatment for many diseases such as: diabetes, obesity, Alzheimer\'s disease, kidney disease, osteoporosis, diarrhea, dental plaque, atherosclerosis, cancers and ulcer. This review is to collect information about pomegranate composition and the miraculous and medical benefits of pomegranate.

Title: Biomass of Marandu and Mulatto II grasses at nitrogen sources and doses in the rainy season

Abstract:It is of great importance in livestock increased biomass production, to decrease the opening of new areas for the implementation of forage, favoring the productive and environmental context. The increase in capacity is the reconstitution of soil fertility, particularly nitrogen. The objective of the study was to evaluate green and dry biomass of leaf blades and stems plus sheaths of forage Brachiaria. The experiment was conducted from November to April of 2014/15 in Alta Floresta-MT, Brazil. The treatments were two forage (cv. Marandu and Mulato II), two N sources (urea and ammonium sulfate) and five N rates (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1) in factorial scheme 2x2x5. It was determined during the six months the green and leaf dry biomass, stem and total. Nitrogen fertilization had increasing linear effect on the productive characteristics, with greater accumulations of biomass at a dose of 200 kg ha-1 of N. The application of high doses are favored with the source of ammonium sulfate, due to lower nitrogen losses from volatilization. Forage did not show great disparity for foliar dry matter production, stem, full and green stalk weight.

Title: Effect of Growth Regulators on Micropropagation of Exotic Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Under In Vitro Condition

Abstract:The aim of present study was to find out the suitable concentration of growth hormones for in vitro micropropagation of potato. Four exotic genotypes viz CIP-4, CIP-6, CIP-10 and CIP-22 were used as explants. Incubation of explants were begun on agar solidified (7g/L) Murashige and Skoog\'s (MS) media comprising sucrose (3%). This media was supplied with various levels of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), gibberellin (GA3) and benzyl amino purine (BAP). Outcome exhibited wide range of response of genotypes for height, nodes, shoot, leaves and root per plant. GA3 with 10 and 8 mg/L greatly increased the height, nodes and leaves of plants, respectively. Alike, more number of shoots recorded for BAP at 10 mg/L whereas NAA at 10 mg/L increased roots in potato genotypes. However, among potato genotypes, maximum plant height and roots was noted for CIP-10 while CIP-6 produced more number of nodes and leaves. CIP-4 genotype produced more number of shoots. The describe protocol may be helpful to begin micropropagation in potato and would overcome the complications of conventional propagation of potato crop

Title: Miraculous Properties of Fig and Perspective of Modern Sciences

Abstract:Fig tree which is also known as (Ficus Carica L) was mentioned once in Quran in surah AL-TEEN. In that same surah, God swore to figs because of its great benefits. This paper aims to describe the properties of fig composition and nutrients, as well as its advantage and usage in trad medical practices in treating several health issues. The fig tree has been used as a therapy for various disease such as inflammation, gastric problems cancer, hepatoprotective, diabetes, constipation, and can also reduce Alzheimer�s. Ficus carica L. is one of the oldest trees belonging to the family of Moraceae. Figs are not only delicious but are rich in minerals including potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron and copper. It is a sweet fruit with multiple seeds and soft skin, which can be eaten when ripened or dried, and it is usually found in Asia, India. Despite been rich in minerals, figs are good source of anti-ointment-inflammatory and anti-microbial which contain high amounts of phenolics, organic compound and volatile acid. Figs are also good source of fiber and vitamin A and K that contributes to healthy living. This review is to collect information about fig components and to determine the health and medical benefits of fig.

Title: Profit efficiency and its determinants: Empirical evidence from smallholder maize farmers in Ghana

Abstract:Despite all the economic importance of maize, there is still a gap between domestic supply and demand, resulting in food insecurity since maize is a major cereal in Ghana. This study analyzed profit efficiency and factor that influence it, using data collected from 600 maize farmers from Ghana. The study employed the Stochastic Frontier Model\'s Cobb-Douglas function as the primary method for analyzing profit efficiency. The results revealed an increase in the price of input resources like fertilizer, herbicides, pesticides, seed, labor, and rent on farmland would decrease the profit efficiency among smallholder maize farmers in Ghana. The average profit efficiency for maize producers in Ghana was 46.8%. The study also found gender, government subsidies, education, access to extension services, access to credit, membership of farmer groups/association to negatively impact profit inefficiency. Therefore, all other things being equal would decrease the profit inefficiency among smallholder farmers. On the contrary, land fragmentation and farmer\'s age would increase the profit inefficiency of smallholder farmers. Based on the results, stakeholders should subsidize the price of input resources like fertilizer, pesticides, herbicides, and improved seed to make it affordable to farmers.